STUDY GUIDE for MICROBIAL GENETICS

1.      Define the following terms:

Genome         Chromosome         Gene         Allele        Genotype         Phenotype

2.      Describe the structure of DNA.

     a.      What are the two main functions of DNA?

     b.      What is a nucleotide?

     c.      What are the four nucleotides in DNA?

     d.      What are the four nucleotides in RNA?

     e.      How are nucleotides connected into a DNA strand?

     f.      How are the two strands of a DNA molecule connected to one another?

     g.      What is the complementary base pairing rule?

     h.      What is meant when the two strand of DNA are said to be antiparallel?

3.      Describe DNA replication.

     a.      What is the function of DNA Helicase?

     b.      What is DNA Polymerase?

     c.      What is the function of RNA primers?

     d.      What is the function of DNA Ligase?

     e.      Compare and contrast replication of the leading and lagging strands.

     f.      Why is DNA replication said to be semi-conservative?

     g.      What is the Rolling Circle Model of bacterial DNA replication?  In other words, describe the bidirectionality of bacterial DNA replication.

4.      Describe transcription and translation.

     a.      What is the function of RNA Polymerase?

     b.      In prokaryotic cells, where does transcription occur?  In eukaryotic cells, where does transcription occur?

     c.      Compare and contrast DNA and RNA.

     d.      What are the roles of mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes?

     e.      What is the genetic code?  Why is it sometimes called the Universal genetic code?

5.      Compare and contrast prokaryotic genetics with eukaryotic genetics.

6.      What is the Lac operon?  How does E. coli regulate the production of proteins involved in lactose digestion?

     a.      What was the importance of determining how the lac operon functions?

7.      What is a mutation?

     a.      What is a base substitution?

     b.      What is a frameshift mutation?

     c.      What are silent (neutral), missense, and nonsense mutations?

8.      Describe the following methods of genetic recombination in bacteria:

     a.      Transformation

     b.      Transduction

     c.      Conjugation

     d.      Transposition