Tony Chennault's

Human Anatomy and Physiology Page

Welcome to BIOL& 241 (Winter Quarter 2017) at Clark College! 

My Contact Information:

Biology 241 Announcements

Wed. 1/18/17 7:30AM -- Here is a second audio file of yesterday's lecture, in .M4A format.  It's a smaller file, so a faster download, and the volume of my voice seems louder on it.  Thank you very much to the student who sent it to me! 

Tue. 1/17/17 10:00PM -- To those of you in the evening lecture or who otherwise did not attend this morning's lecture:

This morning we talked briefly about the Cranial Nerve Exam, and then we went through the rest of the Ch. 1 notes and all of the Ch. 4 notes.  About half of the slides we discussed today were labeled with an "FYI" tag, which means the information on those slides is NOT fair game for Lecture Exam 1.  Because today's lecture was one of the lightest content-wise of the quarter, I am confident that those of you who missed it can effectively get caught up by listening to an audio recording of the lecture as you follow along your notes, and then letting me know (in lab, before or after Thursday's lecture, or by email) if you have any questions about the concepts so I can explain them to you further. 

Click here for a .WAV audio file of today's lecture (a big thank you to the student who sent it to me tonight!).  It's a big file, so it might take a while to download (the reason this announcement is so late is because it took me a pretty long time to upload it to my site!).  Skip the first three minutes; the actual lecture begins at the 3:02 mark.  In my opinion, the sound level of my voice is not very loud, so I suggest you listen in a quiet place or use headphones, and crank the volume up to the max!

Again, if you didn't attend this morning's lecture, before Thursday's lecture please listen to this as you follow along in your notes, and then let me know (in lab, before or after Thursday's lecture, or by email) if you have any questions about the concepts so I can explain them to you further.  We will mainly focus on Ch. 5 in Thursday's lecture.

As always, thanks for your understanding and flexibility, and see you soon!   

Tue. 1/17/17 7:30PM -- All right, regarding our lab schedule this week...I've given this a lot of thought, and I need to find the right balance between 1) making sure all students have enough opportunity to look at the slides in lab to prepare for Lab Exam 1, and 2) not pushing Lab Exam 1 back so far that it negatively impacts study time on the tougher lab units coming up.  Assuming we are able to have labs tomorrow (Wednesday), then students in WF labs will have had more scheduled lab time than those with labs on Tuesdays and/or Thursdays.  Therefore, to make sure scheduled lab time for learning the tissues is as equitable as possible, here's the plan for labs this week:

* We will not be giving Lab Exam 1 on Thursday (1/19).  Instead, all scheduled labs both tomorrow (Wed.) and Thursday will be for review and additional study/prep time for Lab Exam 1.  All students are welcome to come to any of the scheduled labs tomorrow (9A-2:50P) and Thursday (1-4:50P; 6:30-9:20P); once again we'll share microscopes/slides and bring in extra chairs/stools as needed.

* If you're in a WF lab, plan on taking Lab Exam 1 as scheduled in your registered lab on Friday (either 9A, 11A, or 1P)

* If you're in a lab that meets on Tuesdays and/or Thursdays, I'm asking that you have some flexibility to take Lab Exam 1 on Friday, please.  Here are some possible times for Friday:  10A, 12P, and any time between 2P-8P.  I'll have a sign-up sheet in lab beginning tomorrow so you can indicate when you're planning on taking the exam.  The 10A and 12P time slots will be limited to 20 students max each.  The 2P-8P period will be less structured time-wise, allowing students to come in any time during that timeframe (no later than 7P, so that you can finish by 8P); if we have 20 students in the lab at a particular time, the next students will wait outside (it won't be long) for the next available slots to open up.  If you REALLY want a 10A or 12P time slot and are concerned the 20 slots on the sign-up sheet will fill before you're able to get into the lab to sign up, let me know by email and I'll put your name on the list. 

* If you're in a lab that meets on Tuesdays and/or Thursdays and you absolutely can't make any time on Friday work for you, please let me know ASAP, and I or Bryan will work with you to make a special arrangement to take Lab Exam 1 sometime during the weekend.

Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns about this revised lab schedule for the week, and thank you for your understanding and flexibility, it is very appreciated!

That's all for the moment...I'll have more to say about lecture a little later...

Tue. 1/17/17 3PM -- Well you've probably heard by now that Clark closed today at 1PM, with all classes and labs from that time forward cancelled for the day.  Sorry I didn't post an announcement earlier, but for some reason my computer wouldn't connect to the internet when I was on campus earlier today, but now that I'm home there's no problem.  I need to do some thinking and consulting with my colleagues so that I can figure out a revised schedule for the rest of the week...look for an update here sometime this evening.  Thank you for your patience and understanding, it's truly appreciated!

Week 2 (January 17-20) -- This week's lecture assignments:

* Any questions or concerns about the syllabus?

* ASAP (by Wed. 1/18) -- have you put some serious thought and self-reflection into your readiness and commitment to take this very rigorous and challenging course?  In other words, I have one question for you:  are you in?  Remember, Wed. 1/18 is the new (extended) 100% refund drop deadline.  Let me know if you have any questions or concerns.

* BEFORE each lecture -- skim the relevant parts of the upcoming chapters in Martini, and read through the upcoming lecture note slides.  Our focus for this week is to highlight the most important aspects of Ch. 1 and Ch. 4 before delving into Ch. 5 (depending on how the Ch. 5 discussion goes, we may or may not be able to begin our discussion of Ch. 6 on Thursday...I'll give you an update on that possibility after Tuesday's lecture).

Please note:  during this lecture unit, you will not be responsible for every page of Chapters 1, 4, 6, and 9.  To help guide your readings during the next few weeks, please note the excluded sections below:

Specific Exclusions (note that all page numbers I refer to are from the 10th Edition of Martini et al.):


For Chapter 1 (Introduction to A&P) in Martini et al., I am specifically excluding pp. 14 (beginning with Section 1-7 “Anatomical terms describe body regions, anatomical positions and directions, and body sections”) through the end of the chapter from your lecture exam material responsibilities.  Be aware, however, that some material from these pages is fair game for Lab Exam 1 as indicated in Unit 1 (Part A) (“Terminology and Levels of Organization”) of the Lab Manual.


For Chapter 4 (Tissues) in Martini et al., I am specifically excluding the following portions of the chapter from your exam material responsibilities:

* pp. 118 (starting with the beginning of Section 4-3) – 123 (up to the “Glandular Epithelia” section title)

* pp. 124 (starting with the “Gland Structure.” section subtitle) – 125

* pp. 126 (starting with the “Classification of Connective Tissues” section title) – 128 (up to the “Connective Tissue Fibers.” section subtitle)

* pp. 129 (starting with the “Loose Connective Tissues” section title) – 133 (up to the beginning of Section 4-5)

* pp. 134 (starting with the “Types of Cartilage” section title) – 136 (up to the “Bone” section title)

* pp. 140 (starting with the beginning of Section 4-8) – the end of the chapter


For Chapter 6 (Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure) in Martini et al., I am specifically excluding the following portions of the chapter from your exam material responsibilities:

* Figure 6-2

* The “Types of Fractures” information in Figure 6-16


For Chapter 9 (Joints) in Martini et al., I am specifically excluding pp. 268 (starting with the beginning of Section 9-3) – 283 (up to the beginning of Section 9-7), with the exception of Section 9-4, from your exam material responsibilities.

* AFTER each lecture -- read the relevant sections of the chapter(s) that we discussed (coordinating the reading with your notes), and ACTIVELY study and learn the concepts.  Examples of ACTIVE studying (see the "Tips for Success" section of the syllabus for more suggestions) include re-writing/typing/organizing/phrasing your notes, making flashcards, mind-mapping...above all, try to paraphrase (put the info into your own words) if you can.  Work first to UNDERSTAND the concepts, and then work to convert that understanding into KNOWLEDGE (there is a big difference between the two!).  Resources for helping you UNDERSTAND the concepts include:  your book, your classmates, the web, and your instructor (me!).   

* The publisher of the Martini textbook suggests you view this short video, which introduces some of the features of the book and its companion website, Mastering A&P.

* * * * *

Biology 241 Course Materials for Winter 2017

BIOL& 241 Syllabus, Winter 2017


Note:  because the prerequisite for BIOL& 241 is successful completion of BIOL& 160, you should be fundamentally proficient in the following learning outcomes from the textbook Concepts of Biology by Fowler, Roush, and Wise:  Ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11.


BIOL& 241 Ch. 1 (Intro to A&P) Notes

BIOL& 241 Ch. 4 (Tissues) Notes

New!  BIOL& 241 Ch. 5 (Integumentary) Notes

New!  BIOL& 241 Ch. 6 (Bones) Notes


New!  BIOL& 241 Lecture Exam 1 Prep Guide - we'll briefly discuss how to best use this at the beginning of lecture Thu. 1/19.

The key to the multiple choice questions on the Lecture Exam 1 Prep Guide will be posted on or around Thu. 1/26


BIOL& 241 Cranial Nerve Exam Informational Handout, Winter 2017

Edited Table 14-4 from Martini et al. (10th Ed.)

Cranial Nerve Exam Sample Grid


As you've probably heard, the A&P sequence is tough, and it requires a lot of outside-of-class study time and effort in order for you to give yourself the best chance to excel.  A while back, I asked some of my best A&P students to tell me what they did to help them score well on the lecture exams.  Here's what they said.

Here's an article that references a research study about a simple writing exercise to help reduce test anxiety

Biology 241L (LAB) Announcements

*** Read about the revised lab schedule for this week (Week 2) in the announcement above (scroll's highlighted in yellow). ***

Week 2 (January 17-20) -- Remember, due to the extenuating circumstances of last week's abbreviated schedule, I am inviting students from any lab who wants to get more tissue studying time to "float" in to any scheduled lab on Tuesday and/or Wednesday.  Just like we did last Friday, we will pull in extra chairs from the lab(s) next door and continue to get cozy with each other, exhibiting flexibility, understanding, and cooperation as we share 'scopes and slides, working together to get those tissues down pat. 

Preparation for Lab Exam 1:

 * Continue to review and study the terminology from Unit 1 (Part A) of the Lab Manual and the tissues and related structures (including locations and functions) from Unit 1 (Part B) of the Lab Manual.  Remember, your resources for the tissues include:  Leboffe Ch. 3 (epithelia), Ch. 4 (several connective tissues), Ch. 5 (cartilage and bone), Ch. 6 (blood), Ch. 7 (muscle tissues), and Ch. 8 (neural tissue); Martini Ch. 4 (all tissue types); and the web (try Google Images or Youtube).

* Labs on Tuesday and Wednesday this week will primarily be for review and practice testing.  Again, while all students are invited to "float" into any scheduled lab on Tuesday and/or Wednesday, if you are in lab section VL (Thursday night) it is especially important that you do so if you want review time in lab this week.

* Access to the lab for review purposes for all students is currently scheduled to end at 2:50PM this Wed. 1/18, at which point the lab instructors will begin setting up the microscopes for Lab Exam 1, which begins the next day.

More about Lab Exam 1:

* Lab Exam 1 will take place during your second (or only) lab of this week.  Exception:  if you are registered for lab section TL (Tuesday night), remember that your designated Lab Exam 1 day/time is this Thursday 1/19 at 8PM.  Don't forget:  you must attend your registered lab section (or, in the case of section TL, your designated day/time) for Lab Exams.  (In other words, no "floating" on exam days.) 

* At some point before your lab exam this week, please read through these ahead of time -- they are the lab exam protocols that will be projected onto the screen during the exam.

After you take Lab Exam 1:

Take in a deep breath, exhale, and then I suggest you get a head start on learning about the bones and their specific features/landmarks/structures (there are a LOT of them, and we only have a little over two weeks to get 'em down!).  So before you come to next week's labs, I strongly suggest you...

* Read p. 20 of the Lab Manual, and start to learn the meanings of the general bone marking terminology (see Figure 6-2 in the 10th Ed. of Martini, or Table 6-1 in previous editions of Martini, for most of them).  Then, before you show up to lab next week, take the bones and features/landmarks/structures in your Lab Manual and start finding them, circling/highlighting them, and reading about them in your textbooks.  For Martini, look in Ch. 7 (axial skeleton) and Ch. 8 (appendicular skeleton).  Also, take your Netter atlas, and use its index to find detailed drawings of what you're looking for.  Overall, learn about the bones and their features/landmarks/structures as much as you can ahead of time (focusing on what makes each of them unique/identifiable), so that your valuable time in lab next week is spent efficiently with the real things. 

* * * * *

Biology 241L (Lab) Materials for Winter 2017

New!  BIOL& 241L Lab Manual, Winter 2017 - you don't need to print this out; you will receive a hard copy at the first lab meeting


STEM Building (SBG) A&P Open Lab Schedule for Winter Quarter 2017:

·        8:30AM-6:30PM on 1/14, 1/15, 1/28, 1/29, 2/4, 2/5, 2/18, 2/19, 2/25, 2/26, 3/11, and 3/12

·        If our A&P Lab (SBG 315) is locked during the above dates/times, find the instructor next door in SBG 309, and he or she will let you in to our lab.

A&P Links

My colleagues Professor Mark Bolke and Dr. Rick Rausch have compiled extensive collections of links to web resources that you may find useful and interesting during your study of A&P.  Check 'em out!

Professor Mark Bolke's links page

Dr. Rick Rausch's links page

The Archive:  Course Materials From Previous Terms

Biology 160 Course Materials from Fall 2016

Biology 241 Course Materials from Winter 2016 -- Note:  if you are taking my BIOL& 241 course this winter (2017), feel free to preview these but do not print them, as I will be editing them during the quarter and some content and/or organization may change.  I'll have the "new and improved" versions of my notes posted in the "Biology 241 Course Materials for Winter 2017" section of this website (scroll up) by the night before each lecture at the latest, and most often sooner.

Biology 242 Course Materials from Spring 2016